Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are engineered systems that orchestrate sensing, computation, control, networking, and analytics to interact with the physical world (including humans), and enable safe, real-time, secure, reliable, resilient, and adaptable performance
Reference architectures and data management can be used to modernize an existing traditional Data and Analytics (D&A) platform. An example of this capability is from a Transmission System Operator (TSO) that modernized its existing traditional D&A platform to build a cyber-physical grid for energy transition. However, the approaches used in this example can be leveraged as a toolkit to implement similar work in other industries such as transportation, defense, petroleum, water utilities, etc.
A Word About Cyber-Physical Systems
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are engineered systems that orchestrate sensing, computation, control, networking, and analytics to interact with the physical world (including humans), and enable safe, real-time, secure, reliable, resilient, and adaptable performance.
CPS currently exist across a wide range of environments and spans across multiple industries ranging from military, aerospace and automotive, through energy, manufacturing operations and physical security information management, to healthcare, agriculture, and law enforcement.
CPS is part of a family of interconnected concepts that seek to optimize outcomes, from individual processes to entire ecosystems, by merging cyber/digital approaches with the physical world. Examples of these concepts are Operational Technology, Industrial Internet of Things, Internet of Things, Machine-to-Machine, and Smart Cities/Industry 4.0/Made in China 2025.
Table 1 shows the main purposes of these interconnected concepts. Figure 1 depicts that Digital Business Technology Platform(s) can be used to implement the cyber/digital components of modern Cyber-Physical Systems in different vertical industries.
|1||Cyber-Physical System (CPS)||Enabling safe, real-time, secure, reliable, resilient and adaptable performance of physical assets and/or humans|
|2||Operational Technology (OT)||Process Optimization|
|3||Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)||Factory Optimization|
|4||Internet of Things (IoT)||Interconnecting of anything anywhere|
|5||Machine-to-Machine (M2M)||Automating data transmission and measurement between mechanical or electronic devices|
|6||Smart Cities/Industry 4.0/Made in China 2025||Optimizing cities / national economies / societies|
TRANSPOWER is a large Transmission System Operator (TSO) which owns the power transmission assets and operates the system.
Figure 2 depicts that the initial state electricity market exhibits a vertically integrated style of ownership and control; and Figure 3 depicts that the current state electricity market exhibits a horizontally integrated style of ownership and control.
Genco i … Power Generation Company i
Disco j … Power Distribution Company j
TSO … Transmission System Operator
The Future State Electricity Market
Recently, and in response to the key requirements of the national policies for climate and energy, the following strategic objectives were set by the government for the electricity sector to achieve within the next 10 years and TRANPOWER was mandated to lead the development and implementation of a digital business transformation program to achieve them:
- 30% cuts in greenhouse gas emissions
- 25% share for renewable energy
- 26% improvement in energy efficiency
In response to the confluence of these strategic objectives, and the key forces that will be driving transformation in the global electrical utility sectors for years to come (e.g., digitalization, decentralization, democratization and decarbonization), it has been decided to evolve the electricity market (once again) into a distributed energy market style. The sector actors of the distributed energy market will leverage sustainable energy provisioning business models that support transactive energy concepts (including Transactive Control). Figure 4 depicts that the future state electricity market exhibits a distributed energy market style.
To realize the vision of the distributed energy market, TRANSPOWER decided to implement a cyber-physical power grid where the cyber components of this grid will be implemented in the form of a Digital Business Technology Platform. TRANSPOWER took this decision based on an initial study that explored and evaluated the business and technical dimensions of the new electricity market, and hence established a digital business transformation program that comprises the following steps:
Development of digital business transformation strategy and roadmap
- Development of current state Operating Model and Business Capability Model
- Conducting a survey on “digital-only” businesses and “born-digital” businesses relevant to the vision of the distributed energy market and relevant to the new strategic objectives set by the government for the electricity sector
- Reviewing the socioeconomic drivers and technology innovation trends driving the power utility industry toward a decarbonized, distributed, digital and democratized future and their implication on TRANSPOWER Information Communication Technology (ICT) and Operational Technology (OT) plans
- Identifying potential areas for delivering business value by rethinking, reinventing, reimagining and transforming the current business model by better leveraging Social, Mobile, Information, Cloud and Internet of Things
- Developing the future state operating model and business capability model
- Reviewing TRANSPOWER organization chart and propose new organizational capabilities and pathways for digital success
- Defining the initiatives of the digital business program
- Expanding the data governance framework to accommodate digital
- Synchronizing TRANSPOWER digital business strategy with its ICT and OT strategies
- Developing a high-level implementation roadmap
- Defining the architecture requirements and develop the future state architecture
- Establishing the new human capital capabilities required for the implementation of the digital business transformation program
- Partnering with relevant ecosystem players
- Building the digital business technology platform
- Implementing the digital business transformation program
Some of the most important high-level deliverables generated from this step are shown in Figures 5 – 7.
Figure 5 depicts TRANSPOWER future state operating model. The future state operating model is used to align strategy with execution. The red text in Figure 5 indicates that some capability building blocks are missing or need to be improved and modernized to enable the implementation of the digital business transformation program.
One of the most important new capability building blocks shown in Figure 5 is the digital business transformation capability building block. This building block includes the new capabilities needed to create TRANSPOWER digital services; and it is highlighted by the red text in the left side of Figure 5.
Figure 6 shows a closer look at the digital business transformation capability building block.
Table 2 shows the most important business requirements related to TRANSPOWER future state operating model.
Figure 7 depicts TRANSPOWER digital business transformation program high-level implementation roadmap.
- CG… Corporate Governance
- ERM … Enterprise Risk Management
- IC… Internal Control
- EA … Enterprise Architecture
- EIM … Enterprise Information Management
- ICT … Information Communication Technology
- OT … Operational Technology
- IoT … Internet of Things
- CRM… Customer Relationship Management
- Ecosystem RM … Ecosystems Relationship Management
Figure 5: TRANSPOWER future state operating model
|1||Uplift TRANSPOWER human capital capabilities|
|2||Expand the governance framework to accommodate digital|
|3||Ensure the security of electricity supply|
|4||Support transactive energy business model|
|5||Ensure the overall system and grid cost efficiencies|
|6||Enable high quality data and analytics provisioning, publication, exchange and sharing between the electricity market participants|
|7||Ensure the interoperability between the electricity sector actors (e.g., RSC, TSO, DSO and market participants)|
|8||Ensure the interoperability between the electricity sector and the other coupled sectors (building sector, transport sector, oil and gas sector, etc.)|
|9||Adopt new technology applications in a cost-effective integrated manner to promote business efficiency|
Table 2: The most important business requirements
Future State Architecture Toolkit
TRANSPOWER used a custom-made Unified Analytics Framework (UAF) as tools to define the future state architectural requirements and develop the future state architecture of its D&A platform. This framework is developed to support both the Agile and the Waterfall approaches for architecture development and program planning and delivery. The reference architecture of modern D&A platform environment is an essential part of the UAF. However, the UAF is based on a wider set of underlying foundations that includes other reference architecture models, best practices and industry standards that had been selected, combined, and tailored to serve this purpose. The UAF is suitable for the utility industry, and it can be easily tailored and used to implement similar work in other asset-intensive industries such as heavy manufacturing, aviation, oil and gas, transportation, and mining. Figure 8 depicts the high-level structure of the UAF, Table 2 depicts the UAF underlying foundation. Figures 9 and 10 depict tow of these foundations (the reference architecture of modern D&A platform environment and Inmon’s seven streams approach respectively.
|Foundation Description||Foundation Type||UAF Part|
|Reference Architecture of Modern D&A Platform Environment (Figure 10)||Reference Architectures||PART I: Contents Framework|
|Gartner Logical Data Warehouse Reference Architecture|
|Inmon’s DW 2.0|
|The IEC 61970 Common Information Model (CIM)|
|Forrester Big data Technology Patterns|
|OPC Foundation (OPC, OPC UA/ IEC 62541)||Industry Standards|
|Gartner Business Analytics Framework||Frameworks||PART II: Program Planning and Delivery Framework|
|TOGAF 9.1 Enterprise Architecture Framework|
|Inmon’s Seven Streams Approach for BI program planning and delivery (Figure 9)|
|Larissa Moss Extreme Scoping Approach to DW & BI|
|Best Practices for Self-Services Analytics||Best Practices|
It is important to recognize the value of the business case and strategic objectives of a TSO that modernized its D&A platform as a part of implementing its cyber-physical grid for energy transition. The TSO used a toolset to define the architecture requirements and develop the future state architecture of the D&A platform. The most essential tools used by the TSO include the TSO operating model, the D&A environment reference architecture, and the seven streams approach for program planning and delivery. Additionally, architecture requirements, the future state architecture, and the implementation approach of the modern D&A platform must be considered.